The area was initially home to the Pawtucket Native Americans. Scottish immigrants began to settle in the area in 1719. The region was known as “Nutfield” and included what are now the neighboring towns of Derry and Londonderry. By 1721 some of the original settlers petitioned to form a separate independent community. Governor Benning Wentworth granted this request in 1742. The town was named after Sir Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, a member of Parliament from 1734 to 1750, Secretary of State for the Southern Department from 1761 to 1763, and a good friend of Governor Wentworth. The town of Windham was originally a parish of Londonderry. Windham was the second town designated by Governor Benning Wentworth following the establishment of the New Hampshire-Massachusetts border. Windham was the birthplace of Samuel Dinsmoor, Governor of New Hampshire from 1831 to 1834. The first census ever taken in Windham totaled at 663 residents in the year 1790.
As of the census of 2010, there were 13,592 people, 4,724 households, and 3,773 families residing in the town. The population density was 507.2 people per square mile of land (195.9/km²). There were 5,164 housing units at an average density of 192.7 per square mile (74.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.2% White, 0.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.2% some other race, and 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population.
The Windham School District currently serves over 2,800 students at the four public schools. Kindergarten through second grade students attend Golden Brook School. Third grade through fifth grade students attend Windham Center School. Windham Middle School, home of the Wildcats, is occupied by sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. The newly built Windham High School, home to the Jaguars, consists of grades nine through twelve. The class of 2012 will be the first graduating class at Windham High School. Prior to the 2011 school year, Windham High School did not have a senior class. Windham's first high school opened for the 2009 – 2010 school year. Prior to opening its own high school, students from Windham went to the high school in neighboring Salem, beginning in 1995. The class of 2011 was the last Windham/Salem graduating class from Salem High School. Earlier, in the 1990s and late 1980s, students attended Pinkerton Academy in Derry. Windham is part of the School Administrative Unit Twenty Eight. SAU No. 28 consists of both the school districts of Windham and neighboring town, Pelham, New Hampshire. Windham High School’s biology teacher, Bethany Bernasconi, was voted New Hampshire’s teacher of the year for 2012. (NH Teacher of the Year Windham High)
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